The Port of Rotterdam Authority, Koole Terminals, Chiyoda Corporation and Mitsubishi Corporation are to study the feasibility of a commercial-scale import of hydrogen from overseas sources to one of Koole’s terminals in the Dutch port utilising Chiyoda’s storage and transportation technology SPERA Hydrogen.
As Northwest Europe will have to import hydrogen on a large scale to reach net zero CO2 emissions, the port authority is looking at ways to set up new hydrogen supply chains from countries where hydrogen can be produced and supplied cost-effectively.
During the project, the port will provide a matchmaking role for major hydrogen end-users in Northwest Europe and competitive oversea hydrogen suppliers and support for materialising the project.
Koole Terminals will pursue ways to innovate its terminal facilities and support development of onward transport to their end-users.
Chiyoda Corporation will be the technology provider for the project and Mitsubishi Corporation will lead the commercial development of the project to make the overall hydrogen supply chain commercially viable.
The feasibility study is expected to take one year. It is the ambition of the companies to import 100 to 200 ktpa hydrogen in 2025 and 300 to 400 ktpa in 2030.
Shipping hydrogen is more challenging than shipping oil or coal. One option is for it to be made liquid by cryogenic process to -253°, another is to transform it into a carrier, like ammonia or methanol or lastly it could be chemically combined in a so called liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC).
Methylcyclohexane (MCH) is a LOHC, which maintains a stable liquid state under ambient temperature and pressure. As a means of storage and transportation of hydrogen, it is comparable with petroleum and petrochemical production in terms of the risks involved.
Chiyoda Corporation has developed the SPERA Hydrogen technology to release hydrogen from MCH. It is produced from toluene through hydrogenation process. When hydrogen is generated from MCH, toluene produced simultaneously, which can be shipped back to be used as material of MCH again.
In 2020 Chiyoda Corporation, Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsui & Co., Ltd. and Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha successfully completed the demonstration project of the long distance transportation (5000 km) and storage of hydrogen.
They used Chiyoda Corporation’s SPERA Hydrogen technology by producing MCH in Brunei, shipping it to Japan and shipping toluene back to Brunei.
This was the world’s very first global hydrogen supply chain project proving the technical readiness for commercial use.
According to the partners, one of the major advantages of MCH over liquid hydrogen and ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is that it makes use of existing infrastructure and vessels, and is easier to handle.